Cannabidiol – CBD
Found in the leaves and stock of the Hemp and Cannabis plants, CBD or Cannabidiol is the most powerful cannabinoid for modulating homeostasis in the human body. Our immune system makes its own cannabinoids but many of us are deficient and supplementing this compound influences a wide range of chemical processes throughout the body.
All “mammals” can benefit from a regiment of CBD, and at the correct dose, will see relief from many conditions such as the ones listed below.
Benefits of CBD
- Nausea and vomiting – Influencing Glutamate receptors within the digestion tract.
- Anti-cancer – Proven to prevent cell migration in an aggressive types of cancer.
- Anxiety and psychotic disorders – Adjusts brain chemistry including Anandamide.
- Arthritis and inflammatory conditions.
- Crohn’s Disease, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, neuropathic pain.
- Colitis and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), gastro-intestinal issues.
- ADD, ADHD, PTSD and other neurological conditions.
- CTE – chronic traumatic encephalopathy.
- Migraines, Diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis.
- Skin conditions including hives, rashes and psoriasis and Acne
There are many more…to learn more about the Benefits of CBD, CLICK HERE!
Cannibidiolic Acid – CBDA
Found in the resin glands (trichomes) of raw cannabis plants. In this case, raw means unheated and uncured. Basically, raw cannabis is fresh flower and leaves trimmed directly from the plant. Many conditions that respond well to CBD may also respond to CBDA. Though, CBDA is broken down and used by the body differently than its “activated” counterpart. CBDA also may not be as strong as CBD, which is why the dosages of CBDA are typically much higher than CBD. By some arguments, activated CBD is more bioavailable than CBDA. Though, there is a lot to be said for consuming it as a nutritional product in a blended drink or juice. Most research focuses on the effects of CBD, not the acid form of the molecule. Still, some scientists are looking into the therapeutic potential of this cannabinoid.
Benefits of Cannabidiolic Acid
1. Nausea and Vomiting
A 2012 study tested the anti-nausea and vomiting potential of CBDA. CBDA was more effective than activated CBD at easing symptoms. The cannabinoid seemed to activate a special type of cell receptor in the brainstem. This receptor is called the 5-HT1A receptor, and it is one of several serotonin receptors found on the surface of cells in humans and animals. While the neurotransmitter serotonin is more famous for its role in depression, it may also have a part to play in nausea and vomiting.
In 2012, laboratory researchers discovered that CBDA showed a positive anti-cancer effect in breast cancer. The research was conducted on cells cultured outside of the body, which means that this finding is considered fairly low-quality evidence. However, repeated experiments in animals and cell lines have found that various cannabis compounds have potent anti-cancer potential. The study that examined CBDA found that the acid successfully prevented cell migration in an aggressive type of breast cancer. Simply stated, CBDA treatment prevented the breast cancer cells from traveling around the body, a key factor in a successful cancer treatment. Similar to the study above, the cannabinoid seemed to suppress genes associated with metastasis, which is when cancer cells migrate to another part of the body. Metastasis is responsible for 90 percent of breast cancer fatalities.
3. Anxiety and Psychotic Disorders
There have been no high-quality studies on CBDA for the treatment of anxiety and psychotic disorders. However, GW Pharmaceuticals does have a patent on CBDA as an adjunct treatment for psychotic disorders. A patent means that there is enough preclinical evidence to warrant further exploration of a pharmaceutical drug. The patent includes CBDA in combination with other cannabinoids, such as activated CBD, THCV, CBC, and CBG. The patent was filed in 2011 in partnership with Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co.
4. Arthritis and Inflammatory Conditions
Raw cannabis does not contain THC. Rather, it contains tetrahydrocannabinol acid (THCA), the acid form of the world’s most popular psychoactive. In its raw form, THCA does not produce a psychoactive high.
Cannabichromene – CBC
For a long time, it was thought that the brain stops developing once you reach a certain age. Turns out, this is not the case. Cells responsible for memory and learning, for example, are continuously made via a process called neurogenesis. In folks with dementia and Alzheimer’s, neurogenesis is altered. A study published in 2013 suggests that CBC can encourage neurogenesis. A group of researchers tested the effects of adult, mouse neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs) outside of the body. NSPCs are special types of cells that can differentiate into a variety of other cells, aiding in brain recovery and growth. The team found that CBC increased the viability of these cells, meaning the cannabinoids improved their function.
Benefeits of Cannabichromene
1. An Antidepressant
CBC is a non-psychoactive compound. This means that those looking for medical relief without a high might appreciate CBC as a medical alternative. Though THC and CBD are commonly thought of as antidepressants, research suggests that cannabichromene can also lend a helping hand.
CBC is a non-psychoactive compound. This means that those looking for medical relief without a high might appreciate CBC as a medical alternative. Though THC and CBD are commonly thought of as antidepressants, research suggests that cannabichromene can also lend a helping hand. Using rodent models, researchers from the University of Mississippi found that rats treated with CBC performed significantly better on stress tests. Chronic stress is considered one of the primary trigger factors for depression. The better you can adapt from stress, the less likely you are to experience depression.
Inflammation is at the root of many modern diseases. While a little inflammation is a healthy immune response, it seems to run rampant in conditions like autoimmune diseases, allergy, and even psychiatric conditions like depression and schizophrenia. Any compound that has potent anti-inflammatory properties is as good as gold in terms of health benefits. It’s well-known that THC and CBD are inflammation-fighters, but cannabichromene deserves some cred as well. A
2010 study found that CBC worked as an anti-inflammatory alone, but it’s inflammation-busting powers are amplified when combined with THC. The combination of the two cannabinoids was more successful in fighting inflammation than either one of them alone.
3. Pain Fighter
This little cannabinoid may have a big impact on pain. 2011 research found that CBC and CBD both stimulated pain-reliving networks in animal models. Early research from the 1980s found that CBC again worked with THC to produce potent analgesic effects. The pain-fighting properties of both cannabinoids increased when combined. CBC has mild analgesic properties on its own.
4. Antibacterial and Antifungal
Another early study found that CBC had significant antibacterial properties. The cannabinoid put dreaded E. coli and staph colonies in their place. CBC also had “mild to moderate” anti-fungal properties as well. This information goes hand-in-hand with a more recent study, which found that CBC and other cannabinoids were as effective as Vancomycin against MRSA.
Not only do Cannabinoids have powerful medicinal qualities as individual compounds, but they work together synergistically to create more potent effects. Each and every cannabinoid deserves some time in the spotlight. With more research on cannabinoids coming out every year, we’ll only continue to unveil the amazing healing powers of this plant.
Cannabigerol – CBG
CBG is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, meaning it doesn’t produce the “highs” that are synonymous with THC. Because it is present in low levels (usually less than 1%) in most cannabis strains, CBG is considered a minor cannabinoid. Amazingly, however, THC and CBD start out as CBG—it’s the chemical parent of THC and CBD.
Specific enzymes in the plant break CBGA down and “direct” it toward one of the three lines. The acids are exposed to ultraviolet light or heat, and voila, they become the cannabinoids we know: THC and CBD. In most strains, CBGA is immediately converted to either THCA or CBDA. Thus, more THC means less CBG and CBD (and vice versa) by nature of how these compounds are synthesized.
To obtain higher yields of CBG, breeders are experimenting with genetic manipulation and cross-breeding of plants. For example, Subcool Seeds is crossing strains to produce higher CBG contents. Scientists can also extract higher levels of CBG from budding plants by pinpointing the optimum extraction time, about six weeks into an eight week flowering cycle.
Cannabidinol – CBN
Its name may bear striking resemblance to CBD, but cannabinol, or CBN, offers a unique profile of effects and benefits that have researchers clamoring for more scientific investigation.
CBN’s most pronounced, characterizing attribute is its sedative effect, and according to many testing labs, 5mg of CBN is as effective as 10mg dose of diazepam, a mild pharmaceutical sedative.
Benefits of Cannabidinol
For those of you who rely on cannabis to resolve a night of tossing and turning, a little CBN would do you some good. Indica strains have long been connected to these sedating, sleepy effects, and some researchers theorize that their tendency for higher CBN contents has something to do with that.
- CBN’s studied benefits include:
- Pain relief
- Promotes growth of bone cells
- Appetite stimulant
Unlike THC, CBN induces little to no psychoactive effects. This is great news for patients needing to medicate with a clear head, but you should note that most flowers contain only trace amounts of CBN. Where THC contents can strive to hit the high watermark of 30%, CBN rarely exceeds 1% in dried flower.
It’s a good thing a little bit goes a long way!
Where Can I Find CBN?
CBN is a product of THC degradation, so as THC oxidizes, it converts to CBN. This process can be prompted by either heat or oxygen, so you can imagine how aged, or poorly stored cannabis is likely to have higher levels of CBN than fresh flower in an air-tight container. So…improperly cured cannabis is also linked to higher amounts of CBN, so it should come as no surprise that this cannabinoid is scorned by many as the mark of bad bud and banished to the bottom shelf.
Some are now educated and understand that old cannabis “considered” stale is actually good for you with less of a high as the THC is reduced.
Cannabidivarin – CBDV
Whether or not CBDV may prove to be useful for any of these ailments has yet to be determined. However, early laboratory and rodent research suggests that the cannabinoid may have some therapeutic potential. Though all research thus far is in its early stages and scientists have a long way to go before they make any firm conclusions about the benefits of CBDV.
CBDV is the precursor to another compound of interest, THCV. THCV is currently being studied as a potential treatment for diabetes. Research suggests that CBDV transforms into THCV under acidic conditions.
Thus far, CBDV has shown potential in three major areas of research. Though, studies on the cannabinoid are limited to preclinical investigations in the laboratory. CBDV is also not very abundant in most mainstream cannabis cultivars, which can make the compound difficult to come by. Still, it may be worthwhile for growers and breeders to experiment with creating chemovars (cultivars that produce specific chemical compounds) that contain higher levels of CBDV. Here’s why:
Benefits of Cannabidivarin
Epilepsy affects over 50 million people worldwide. Already, a pharmaceutical drug containing CBD has successfully reduced seizure activity in advanced clinical trials. Now, early research on CBDV has found that the cannabinoid may have anticonvulsant properties. For example, a 2014 study found that CBDV reduced the electrical waves that indicate seizure activity in brain slices tested outside of the body. Another study published in 2012 found that CBDV was effective in quelling a broad range of seizure activity in mice and rats.
To test the effects of CBDV on nausea, scientists treated rodents with lithium chloride. This made them gape, which is how rats express nausea. Rats cannot physically vomit. Researchers found that CBDV successfully reduced gaping, indicating that it has some of the same anti-nausea effects as other more common cannabinoids.
3. Bone Healing and Fracture
Interestingly, CBDV may help bones grow. This cannabinoid has bone stimulant properties, which may be useful in healing bones after a fracture. Researchers have made similar findings with CBD, which has been shown to strengthen the cartilage bridge that binds fragments of breaks and fractures.
Research suggests that CBDV may help by stimulating stem cells in bone marrow, which then work to form and repair bones.